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Network mapping prior to an attack
Used to collect IP addresses of hosts on a network
Used to discover network gateways
Broadcast ping to a network address space
Broadcast to destination 0.0.0.0 to identify UNIX systems
Broadcast UDP echo, daytime, time or chargen messages - automatic response
Initiate trace routes from different locations simultaneously, and at different times of day, to discover where routes to a specific host converge. DoS attacks against the gateways cut off the internal network from external access.